Diabetes Test Panel
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About Our Diabetes Test Panel
The diabetes test panel includes multiple tests relevant to diagnosing and monitoring diabetes. Diabetes is a group of diseases that result in blood sugar (glucose) levels that are too high.
Type 1 Diabetes is characterized by the body failing to produce insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes is characterized by failing to produce enough insulin for proper function or by the body not reacting to insulin. Approximately 90 percent of diabetes cases are Type 2.
Gestational diabetes affects pregnant women. It occurs when their bodies have very high glucose levels and not enough insulin to transport it into cells. Often women with gestational diabetes have no symptoms, so testing is important if you are considered an at-risk patient.
Our Diabetes Panel includes the following:
- Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) / Glycohemoglobin - The Hemoglobin A1c (glycohemoglobin or glycated hemoglobin) test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the past 8-12 weeks.
- Random Microalbumin, Urine Test - Healthy kidneys filter waste and toxins from the blood and hang on to the healthy components, including proteins such as albumin. Kidney damage can cause proteins to leak through the kidneys and exit the body via urine. Albumin is one of the first proteins to leak when the kidneys become damaged.
- Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP); 14 health tests that measure blood sugar (glucose) levels, electrolyte and fluid balance, kidney function, and liver function.
- Albumin - Albumin is a protein made by the liver. Measuring levels of albumin is helpful in diagnosing liver disease. An albumin test measures how well your liver is making the proteins that your body needs.
- Albumin/Globulin Ratio (calculated) - The A/G ratio is calculated from measured total protein, measured albumin, and calculated globulin (total protein - albumin) to help diagnose diseases.
- Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) - ALT is an enzyme found predominantly in the cells of the liver. When the liver is damaged, ALT levels are significantly elevated.
- Alkaline Phosphatase - In conditions affecting the liver, damaged liver cells release increased amounts of ALP into the blood.
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) - AST is a liver enzyme that is useful in helping to diagnose liver diseases.
- Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) - Urea nitrogen is a byproduct from the breakdown of food proteins. A normal BUN level is between 7 and 20. As kidney function decreases, the BUN level rises.
- BUN/Creatinine Ratio (calculated) - The ratio of BUN to creatinine (BUN:creatinine) is usually between 10:1 and 20:1. An increased ratio may be due to a condition that causes a decrease in the flow of blood to the kidneys.
- Calcium - Measuring urine calcium can help determine whether the kidneys are excreting the proper amount of calcium and can also help diagnose kidney stones.
- Carbon dioxide (Bicarbonate) - Your kidneys and lungs balance the levels of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and carbonic acid in the blood. Carbon dioxide levels can be used to help diagnose kidney disease.
- Chloride - Chloride is an electrolyte. An increased level of blood chloride may indicate kidney disease.
- Creatinine with estimated GFR - A waste product that comes from the normal wear and tear on muscles of the body. This test is a measure of how well the kidneys are removing wastes and excess fluid from the blood. The normal value for GFR is 90 or above, but may decrease with age. A GFR below 60 is a sign that the kidneys are not working properly. A GFR below 15 indicates kidney failure.
- Globulin (calculated) - Globulin is a protein made in your liver and helps the immune system fight infections. Low globulin levels can be a sign of liver damage or other conditions.
- Glucose - Levels of glucose in the urine indicate glycosuria. Renal glycosuria occurs when the renal tubules fail to reabsorb all glucose at a level that is normal.
- Potassium - Potassium is an electrolyte. Kidney disease is the most common cause of high blood potassium.
- Sodium - Sodium is an electrolyte. Abnormal levels of sodium help to determine if the kidneys are properly removing sodium from the body.
- Total bilirubin - This test measure direct and indirect levels of bilirubin for a total bilirubin value. In cases of excess bilirubin, an obstruction, or an inflamed liver, the liver cannot process the bilirubin in the body because. When the body has too much bilirubin, your skin and the whites of your eyes will start to yellow causing a condition called jaundice.
- Total protein - Total protein measurements can help diagnose liver diseases. Total Protein measures the amount of protein in your blood. The two main proteins found in the blood are globulins and albumin.
Common diabetes' symptoms include:
- Urinating often
- Feeling very thirsty or hungry (even if you are eating or have just eaten)
- Extreme fatigue/lethargy
- Blurred vision
- Cuts or bruises that heal slowly
- Weight loss (even though you are eating more (Type 1))
- Tingling/numbness/pain in hands and/or feet (Type 2)
Fasting is required for the blood glucose test that is included in the CMP. Fasting is defined as no consumption of food or beverages other than water for at least 8 hours before testing.